55,000 beluga whales are on the move, and you can watch their migration live

Grab a front-row seat, it’s rush hour for belugas.

Delphinapterus leucas Beluga whale Arctic Ocean

Is the summer heat getting you down? Cool off with a virtual dip into icy Arctic waters and watch as tens of thousands of beluga whales frolic in the frigid sea. Starting Friday (July 15), the research vessel Delphi will broadcast a beluga whale livestream, direct from the Churchill River estuary where the river flows into Hudson Bay in northeastern Canada.

The livestream(opens in new tab), produced in a partnership between Arctic conservation nonprofit Polar Bears International and explore.org, is in celebration of Arctic Sea Ice Day on July 15. The goal is to raise public interest in sea ice and increase awareness of its importance to the Arctic ecosystem.

“It is to the ocean what soil is to the forest,” Alysa McCall, the director of conservation outreach and staff scientist at Polar Bears International, told.

Viewing belugas

The “beluga cams” go live each year as a group of approximately 55,000 beluga whales migrate to the shallow waters of Hudson Bay. The bay is locked in by ice in the winter, according to Stephen Petersen, director of conservation and research at Canada’s Assiniboine Park Conservancy, which forces the belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) to head north into more open seas. But in the summer, the whales return. The whales may find that the sheltered waters of the bay offer protection from killer whales, Petersen told Live Science, while the estuaries provide hungry belugas with ample food. It’s also possible that the warm, low-salt waters from the Churchill River estuary may be beneficial for young calves that haven’t developed a full covering of blubber, or for adult whales as they undergo an annual molt and shed their skin.

Two cameras aboard Polar Bears International’s beluga boat Delphi (short for Delphinapterus, part of beluga’s scientific name) provide different views of this thriving whale population: one from the deck and one from below the water’s surface, which also captures audio of the whale’s chittering calls. The whales can make a variety of noises, ranging from clicking sounds to squawks and airy snorts.

Beluga whales are found throughout the Arctic and sub-Arctic. Some populations are endangered, but the one that migrates into Hudson Bay each year is a healthy size, Petersen said. One of the goals of the beluga cams is to maintain that population’s health.

“We want to build up monitoring so if threats appear or if that population changes we can see that before we get to a critical spot,” Petersen said.

As part of that effort, Petersen runs the Beluga Bits citizen science project(opens in new tab). Beluga cam viewers can collect screenshots of the whales they see as the Delphi livestreams the migration during July and August. Then, throughout the year, anyone can get involved with the project by helping to identify individual whales in the images at zooniverse.org(opens in new tab). These classifications help scientists answer questions like whether the same whales return to the same places each year.

Saving sea ice
Polar Bears International(opens in new tab) will hold a live launch event for the beluga cams at 10:45 a.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST) on July 15. The organization will also be celebrating Arctic Sea Ice Day with a live event at 1:00 p.m. EST that will focus on why the ice is important.

“Sea ice is a critical habitat for Arctic species,” McCall told Live Science. Walrus and seals use sea ice as a refuge to haul out on, seals give birth on sea ice, beluga whales use sea ice for protection from orcas. Every species in the Arctic, in the ocean, is supported by Arctic sea ice, because within Arctic sea ice grows algae which is like the plants of the north.”

This algae forms the base of the food chain, McCall said, feeding fish that then feed belugas and other sea mammals.

However, Arctic sea ice cover overall is shrinking rapidly due to the warming climate, with recent years marking record lows in summer ice extent and experiencing thinning of old, multi-year ice. Near Churchill, Manitoba on the Hudson Bay, the ice historically broke up around July 15, McCall said. These days, the breakup typically occurs three to four weeks earlier than that.

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